SECOND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1970-74.
The second National Development was launched shortly after the end of the civil war as a means of reconstructing the facilities damaged by the war and promoting economic and social development throughout the nation.
The plan aimed at a capital expenditure programme of N3, 192 Billion during the four years and this was expected to be distributed between the public and the private sectors. The public investment programme was set at N2, 100million while the private sector was expected to make an investment of N1, 632 billion.
The implementation of this capital programme was expected to result in a rise in the gross output of the economy from a level of N3, 028 billion in 1969-70 to N3, 987 billion in 1973 in real term. The average growth rate expected throughout the plan period was about 7 percent per annum.
Five objectives or goals were set for the plan to establish Nigeria firmly, they are:
1. A just and egalitarian society
2. A land of bright and opportunity for its citizens.
3. A great and dynamic economy.
4. A free and democratic society and
5. A just and self-reliant nation.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE PLAN
In the manufacturing sector, most manufacturing establishments were fully reactivated in this plan, for instance the Calabar and Nkalagu cement factories were not only brought, back into production but extensive expansion of facilities was initiated. The second oil refinery was implemented at Warri, the super phosphate Fertilizer project came into being at Kaduna. Motor cars are assembled at the Volkswagen and Peugeot assembly plants in Lagos and Kaduna respectively since March, 1975 and two salt refineries were initiated at Ijoko and Sapele.
In the educational sector, a remarkable achievement was recorded, for example the primary level enrolment raised from 3.5 million in 1970 to about 4.5 million in 1973.
At the secondary level, the number of students almost doubled from about 343,300 in 197071 to approximately 649,990 in 1973-74. There was the establishment of twenty new Federal government secondary schools, four new college of Technology and nine Trade centers were established by the state government, while the Federal government set up three new schools of arts and science at Mubi, Ogoja and Sokoto.
With regard to the transport sector, about 2,200 miles of roads ware reconstructed. There was the construction of Kano, Lagos, Jos, Morin and Calabar airports. The National shipping line bought two new ships during the second plan period to replaced expensive chartered vessels, while the Nigeria Airways acquired two Boeing 707, two Boeing 737 and two-F-28 aircraft during the plan period. In the Agricultural sector, most of the farms and plantations abandoned during the civil war particularly in the Eastern states were rehabilitated and bought back into production. Due to the role and importance of agriculture in the Nation's economy, the government intensified the provision of fertilizers and other requirements to farmers during the plan period, Irrigation facilities were provided and Dams were constructed
In the social welfare sector, the National stadium which served as the venue for the second all African games in 1973 was constructed, various televisions and newspapers were established and that teaching hospitals were expanded and equipped-
The Nigerian government also established the National oil corporation during the plan period. .
There was a remarkable external trade in Nigeria during the plan period for instance export values exceeded plan projection because in 1973-74, the value of export stood at N2.278 billion which almost double the figure of N1.248 billion as indicated in plan. This improvement was due to almost entirely to increase in both the price and output of our crude oil.
THE LOOPHOLE-OR FAILURE OF THE PLAN
Nigeria had substantial deficits on current account in the balance of payment for the first three years of the plan period. These deficits raised quire rapidly, from N50 million in 1970 to 219 million and.N317.6 million in 1972.
Taking these entire things together show quire clearly that there area lot of unused or idle resources in Nigeria. A development plan of the right kind should be a plan of the active use. The plan strategy did not resolve the basic factor problems of Nigeria, rather the planner's claimed that the most serious bottleneck (problems) was the problem of foreign exchange availability required to import machinery and raw materials.
Pacts in the development plan did not show any initiative as regards the evolvement of an indigenous technological base. This is because the country has developed strong and ambivalence" attitudes towards foreign investments, foreign technology and technical know how. This does not augur well for a meaningful economic development.